I am considering inventing a new specialized programming language, which should increase the human/computer communication speed considerably. I, therefore, have two questions:
Edit: An example, which is conceptually similar to my invention is the invention of a programming language, which made it much faster to draw 3D-drawings on a computer (CAD) by typing codes, compared to utilizing the mouse as is the case today.
You're probably best advised to get legal advice from an intellectual property rights specialist, but it is important to understand what patents protect you from, and how this works alongside other intellectual property rights law (copyright, licensing, etc.)
Patents are more about protecting the method, rather than the specific implementation -- to take an engineering example, the manufacture of flat glass by floating on a bath of molten metal is patented (I seem to remember by Pilkington) - that doesn't mean all apparatus for this purpose is made by Pilkington, they could licence the method to someone else. However, if somebody else was to invent a new method, maybe using aerogel conveyors or something, they could patent that (assuming no prior art, infringements on other patents, etc.)
There are plenty of cases where concepts within other languages have been patented (for example, Compound OLAP ), and famously how various compression algorithms have previously been patented (such as that used in GIF images)
Given you need a method to patent, you'd probably want to patent your new compiler, rather than the language it uses (after all, your unique syntax will need unique methods for compilation, right? -- also if you can develop a more efficient way of building a compiler, there is the possibility of licensing the patent for use compiling other languages)
Don't forget there are other ways to protect your new language, mostly tied up as licensing terms -- Sun successfully used against Microsoft a few years back, leading to the destruction of the J++ product.