The best corporate lingo is to pay attention and ask a lot of questions. Not only will you learn more but you'll discover people love to talk about themselves. You might find that after a 10 minute conversation you've only asked 3 questions and they did all the talking. They'll go tell their buddy your the best conversationalist they've met in years.
Lingo Unless you're talking about things like standard commercial contract terms (e.g. "2% 10 net 30") you'd find here, it's going to depend completely on the company's industry and location, and it changes all the time.
For instance, I've worked in the hand tools manufacturing industry, where everybody knows what a "screw machine" is, and writing software in Silicon Valley, where most people would have no idea and probably snicker about it.
But it's not worth worrying about. Until you've been in an industry for a few years, people are going to peg you as an outsider or noob in 5s no matter what you do, and trying to avoid that will just mark you as a wannabe who misuses the jargon. Just focus on using plain language to describe how your products and services can solve their problems, and ask about any lingo they use that you don't know, and you should be fine.
Etiquette You seem interested in sales starting with a cold call. Your preferred search engine will turn up lots of hits for "business etiquette", "cold call etiquette" and "sales etiquette", and there are books on how to sell effectively, but here are a few general tips.