Reading this Wikipedia article, it looks to my layman's eye like yes, a charging order against you personally might get to your ownership interest in an S Corp in California, and certainly could cause a lot of headaches.
As far as what you can do to protect against that, you should talk to a competent attorney in your jurisdiction.
Personal creditors are able to go after your property. There is some limitation in bankruptcy law regarding the creditors tryingt to liquidate a homestead property but there is nothing that stops them from equity in either an S corp or an LLC. The liability limitations that those entities offer come from creditors of the corporation not the other way around.
The way you protect this is by having multiple llc's under an S corp. Your umbrella S corp (parent company) owns everything. Each llc manages one segment of your business. So LLC1 handles the lease with your landlord. LLC2 charges income from your customers. LLC3 hold your IP property.
The above scenarios will differ greatly for your business. I personally have 1 llc that collects income from all my business, and then each business is its own LLC and holds all liablities. All the income passes up to an S corp, which myself and partners own shares of.
Since your income gathering llc doesnt do any other business, there is limits to what it can be sued for. And since your liablility holding LLC's dont gain profit, it deters any attorney from suing you on a contingent basis. It gives you a small level of protection. For big suits, you could get cross complaints against all your companies, but this is usually enough to prevent a landlord or vendor suing you.