No, none of those types of words or categories are formally defined.
In fact, even just one of those terms can mean many things. Take "angel" for example. I had a guest-post on VentureBeat about how to get angel investing, and from the comments therein you could take away these differences of opinion:
- "Angel" means "Raise under $50k and bootstrap from there."
- "Angel" means "Raise under $100k and later possibly raise an A-round."
- "Angel" means "Raise $300k with an option for another $300k, with the intent to never raise a real VC round."
- "Angel" means raising money from friends and family.
- "Angel" means raising money from accredited investors who should also be company advisers.
- "Angel" means investing in (relatively) lower risk, lower return companies.
- "Angel" means investing in high-risk, high-return companies.
You can do the same for any of these terms.
Bottom line: Decide what makes sense for you, and go for that. Be able to explain what you want in one sentence, then nomenclature doesn't matter.