Is there any way to set up an affiliate program to market android or iPhone apps? Where I can pay someone in a given market space (say "cooking for diabetics") for each app installed as a result of their blog?
Marketing Affiliate Iphone Apps Android
You're talking about creating a "pay per install" network. You want to look through the documentation on tracking referrers to the Android Market, which will allow you to give a site a unique link to use to promote the app, and allow you to track how many installs come from that particular referrer.
iTunes has an affiliate program but it is not as mature as internet site affiliate type sites. Read more here http://www.apple.com/itunes/affiliates/
Appbrain.com have a pay per install advertising service, they advertise your App on their website and in their App and you only pay if the user actually installs the App. I believe this is android only, and you need to publish your app first and have a few ratings before they allow you to promote your App.