There's a lot of rhetoric, on both sides, about why businesses succeed and fail, but I've seen really no good numbers backing up the claims of either major political party. (in the US)
Sure, spending more money will drive more business, but that's not addressing things like high overhead (of one type or another) killing a business, which both parties like to claim either credit for themselves, or fault in the other party for.
Are there any actual statistics out there, say from bankruptcy filings, which dissect why the businesses died, which could be used as a basis for prescriptive policy to address (undesirable) reasons why businesses fail?
I think the data you're looking for is here: http://blog.startupcompass.co/ Techcrunch covers this here:
Failure is a downward spiral with many turns, not an explosion - that's why it's nearly impossible to pinpoint a single reason which lead to it, or to dissect it as you say. It's not exact science, and everybody has an opinion on it.
Instead of number crunching, I would highly recommend books that deal with actual failure experiences, such as The Lean Startup by Eric Ries or Good to Great by Jim Collins. They highlight some important reasons why companies fail.