If it's a Delaware corporation, then Section 220 of the Delaware General Corporate Law applies, which says:
. . . Any stockholder, in person or by attorney or other agent, shall, upon written demand under oath stating the purpose thereof, have the right during the usual hours for business to inspect for any proper purpose, and to make copies and extracts from . . . The corporation's stock ledger, a list of its stockholders, and its other books and records . . . There are similar provisions in the corporate laws of many states (possibly all; I haven't checked). The process for requesting the records is generally spelled out in the statute.
If the company was publicly traded you would have the ability to know who were the major stockholders. There would also be documents related to the annual meeting that tell you the number of shares and options for the officers and the board of directors.
For a privately owned company that would not be the case.
Under either setup they are not under any obligation to tell an employee how many shares/options were awarded to other employees. That is part of the pay package, and most companies keep that private.