There are a lot of books out there which hit on these concepts:
However, most of these books broach the subject from an abstract mathematical perspective, usually with a single fictional company.
Can anyone recommend a book that covers these concepts more practically through the scope of actual real-world examples? What actual processes do companies use when doing capital budgeting? What is the actual day-to-day job of a CFO? What is the actual experience of going to debt or equity markets to raise capital? If a company leveraged their assets to take out a loan, what were some of the finer details of their experience working with a bank?
Aswath Damodaran is a professor of finance at NYU and he has some great books on corporate finance that you may find helpful (such as Damodaran on Valuation: Security Analysis for Investment and Corporate Finance).
If you are looking for books more on real-life experiences, then books that are more biographical in nature may be more helpful, such as "Barbarians at the Gate"?